Penal Substitution says that God the Father poured out his wrath upon His beloved Son. Its hard for me to believe and it seems unbibilical so to say. Scripture says:
God is jealous, and the Lord revengeth; the Lord revengeth, and is furious; the Lord will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.
But maybe if we study the difference between the wrath of God and the chastisement of God’s children, we will see what is that cup which Jesus drank and which the Apostles shared and that cup which is the called, “the cup of God’s wrath”.
Scripture says that God reserves His wrath towards His enemies.
First, as we see in Nahum, the wrath of God is reserved for God’s enemies. Also:
King James Version (KJV)
35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.
36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.
The wrath of God is reserved for those who do not believe the Son of God.
Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.
Jesus is known for obedience and thus, the wrath of God was not poured out on Him.
For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
And those who follow Christ are recognized by their obedience to Christ. Therefore they also shall not be the object of God’s wrath.
Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?
This pattern is followed throughout Scripture. Where ever the wrath of God is mentioned, it is directed at those who mock God and disobey His commands:
For I was ashamed to require of the king a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way: because we had spoken unto the king, saying, The hand of our God is upon all them for good that seek him; but his power and his wrath is against all them that forsake him.
But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, till there was no remedy.
So, what cup did Jesus drink and the Apostles shared?
King James Version (KJV)
21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom.
22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.
23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.
If it was the cup of God’s wrath, then Jesus and the Apostles would be counted amongst God’s enemies. I think that has been established. However, both Jesus and the Apostles suffered for the sake of God’s Kingdom.
For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
Surprisingly, the Scripture says that Jesus was made perfect through suffering.
And they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name.
And the Apostles rejoiced when they suffered for Christ.
And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
And we are all appointed to suffer with Christ, if we believe in Him. If we don’t suffer, we are bastard children:
King James Version (KJV)
7 If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not?
8 But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons.
9 Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live?
There is a difference in both forms of suffering. Those who suffer God’s wrath and those who suffer God’s chastisement do not suffer the same thing.
In both forms of suffering there is pain and frequently, death. However, I can’t find in the suffering of God’s wrath, any indication of a resurrection. And that is the difference between the suffering of God’s wrath and in suffering as God’s children in imitation of Christ.
Christ suffered death in order to rise again. Christ suffered this death in order to give us an example to follow.
This is why, the suffering which Christ suffered can’t be described as the Cup of God’s wrath.
For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.
For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead:
And this is the Catholic Doctrine which fits the Scriptures perfectly:
616 It is love “to the end” that confers on Christ’s sacrifice its value as redemption and reparation, as atonement and satisfaction. He knew and loved us all when he offered his life. Now “the love of Christ controls us, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died.” No man, not even the holiest, was ever able to take on himself the sins of all men and offer himself as a sacrifice for all. The existence in Christ of the divine person of the Son, who at once surpasses and embraces all human persons, and constitutes himself as the Head of all mankind, makes possible his redemptive sacrifice for all.
All who live in Christ must first die in Christ:
Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him:
562 Christ’s disciples are to conform themselves to him until he is formed in them (cf. Gal 4:19). “For this reason we, who have been made like to him, who have died with him and risen with him, are taken up into the mysteries of his life, until we reign together with him” (LG 7 § 4).
And Penal Substitution is proven a false doctrine which contradicts the Word of God.